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Yet More Evidence That Vaping Is Probably Terrible | SciShow News


{♫Intro♫} When you get scared or stressed, your body
sets off what’s often called the “fight or flight” response—a series of changes
which includes an increased heart rate and faster breathing. And for years, we’ve thought this response
was kicked off by hormones from your adrenal glands. But research published yesterday in the journal
Cell Metabolism found that a hormone released by your bones can trigger the response all
on its own. We’ve long known that the sympathetic nervous
system, one of the automated branches of your nervous system, prepares you to respond to
danger. And this is generally thought to be controlled
by the release of stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol from your adrenal glands on top
of your kidneys. But that doesn’t explain why people and
animals that can’t release these hormones for whatever reason can still experience a
heart-pounding, breath-quickening, acute stress response. In fact, you can completely remove the adrenal
glands from mice and they still react to threats with what looks like true “fight or flight”. That suggests there is another source of stress
hormones in the body that can turn on the sympathetic nervous system. And for the past few years, one research group
has suspected that source may be bones. After all, the whole point of having a skeleton
is to let us run away from predators and protect our organs from harm. And studies have found that a bone-derived
hormone called osteocalcin improves muscle function during exercise, so it seemed like
a good place to start. So, they took some mice, applied an electric
shock to their feet to trigger a stress response, and then looked at hormones in their blood. Sure enough, osteocalcin levels surged to
150% in just fifteen minutes. The researchers also exposed mice to a chemical
found in fox urine. And just like with the shocks, the mice’s
osteocalcin levels shot up. They reached a peak just a few minutes after
sniffing the scent, then stayed high for hours. And human subjects also showed a similar elevation
in osteocalcin when stressed out. This time not smelling fox pee, but asked
to do, like a public speaking task. But the team still had to tie this bone hormone
to how the brain processes stress. They found that injecting osteocalcin was
enough to trigger a mouse’s stress response. And injecting a neuron-quieting drug into
the fear center of the mice’s brains prevented the surge of osteocalcin, while removing the
mice’s adrenal glands did not. So the osteocalcin-induced response doesn’t
depend on adrenal stress hormones—it’s a complementary switch. They also conducted experiments to figure
out how the hormone turns on the fight or flight response. And it turns out it’s more about what it
turns off. You see, the researchers found that when they
injected osteocalcin into mice, the cells within bones called osteoblasts took up more
of the neurotransmitter glutamate. Through a string of biological events, this
dampens the activity of neurons in the parasympathetic nervous system, a part of your nervous system
that works against the sympathetic nervous system a lot of the time, like by slowing
down heart rate. So basically, osteocalcin quiets one of your
body’s key regulating systems, allowing your sympathetic nervous system do its thing
unopposed. This alternate stress response fills in some
gaps in our understanding, but the researchers say there’s a lot more to learn about bone
hormones and their effects on the body. And more research is needed on how this alternate
stress pathway interacts with adrenal responses if we want to fully understand the relationship
between brain and bone. Speaking of needing more research… vaping Ever since vaping became a thing, scientists
have been trying to figure out how it compares with smoking in terms of health effects. Companies that make e-cigarettes like to claim
that vaping is harmless, or at least way safer that smoking… but what we’re finding is that it doesn’t
cause the same problems that smoking does, it causes some problems of its own. And a paper published recently in the Journal
of Clinical Investigation adds to this idea. They found that the presence of e-cigarette
vapor altered lung immune cells in mice, making them more prone to infection. The researchers started by exposing the mice
to traditional cigarette smoke, vapor from e-cigarettes both with and without nicotine,
and then just also regular old air. The e-cigarette smoke didn’t trigger the
kind of inflammation and structural changes to the lungs that can lead to conditions like
emphysema—stuff that is seen with traditional cigarette smoke. So, yay. But, when they looked at the lung tissues
under a microscope, they saw something strange was happening. Specifically, immune cells called macrophages
were getting overly fatty. These fats, called lipids, are important components
of cells, and they play crucial roles in lung function and immunity. You see, your lungs are coated with a goo
that helps trap foreign invaders while ensuring enough oxygen can get through. It works because it’s composed of a special
mix of lipids and proteins. And macrophages are responsible for ensuring
the goo has the right lipids in it. If macrophages are accumulating lipids inside
of them, that suggests there’s something going wrong with the goo. And that could leave the lungs susceptible
to infection. So, the team ran another experiment. This time, they exposed the mice to e-cig
vapor with nicotine, e-cig vapor without nicotine, or regular air for 3 months, and then gave
them a lethal dose of flu virus. And it didn’t matter if the vapor had nicotine
or not—the mice exposed to the vapors were significantly more likely to die. And when given sub-lethal doses, the mice
exposed to e-cig vapors lost more weight, which the researchers interpreted as a weaker
immune response. They also found increases of inflammatory
markers in the lungs, so their conclusion seemed clear — exposure to vaping impairs
the lung’s immune system, even if it doesn’t contain nicotine. In mice, anyway. Though, if something similar happens in people,
it could help explain the recent rush of pneumonia cases in people who vape. You see, tests have found macrophages similarly
laden with fats in patient’s lungs. And that kind of connection between human
cases and animal models is concerning. But, it doesn’t prove that vaping is directly
responsible for people’s lung infections. Also, it’s not yet clear what it is in the
vapor causes these changes to lung immune cells. If we can pinpoint that, we might be able
to make vaping products safer by switching up the ingredients. Still, studies seem to keep suggesting that
vaping is harmful in its own unique way—which is why health regulatory agencies like the
US FDA keep slamming companies for claiming their products are safe. And whether vaping is ultimately less risky
than smoking unfortunately remains an open question. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow
News! This episode was brought to you by today’s
President of Space, Matthew Brant. Thank you, Matthew, for your presidential
support! If you want to join Matthew in supporting
this channel, you can learn how over at Patreon.com/SciShow. {♫Outro♫}

100
Comments
  • Lipid pneumonia was a real issue in 2009-2010 due to some liquids used oil based flavorings, wonder when the study was done and what liquids were used.

    The recent pulmonary issues are directly related to vitamin e acetate from black market THC “carts” that have been purchased off the street.

    I agree that we should continue to study the effects of vaping, but I have never heard a hardware or liquid manufacturer claim that vaping is completely harmless, just less harmful than cigarettes, and so much so that many UK hospitals have actually set up basic shops to sell smokers vapes and the royal college of physicians has deemed it 95% safer than combustible tobacco

  • I vaped for a bit. Got the worst lung infection if EVER had. The mucus both looked and tasted like cheese. Now I have auto immune problems. I don’t know if it is what caused it, but it definitely didn’t help

  • Look ive been smoking cigarettes for 31yrs. A pack a day smoking. I know its bad and I need to quit. But I enjoys it and will probably die due to smoking. Now my wife trying to be nice and try to make me save some money. So she bought me an E- cigarette. About 2 weeks after using it, I couldn't breathe. I ended up having pneumonia and I was pretty sure that the E-cigarette was the cause. I choose to try it again amd had the same result. I was back in the hospital with pneumonia again. My wife did argue with me after the 2nd time. All I can say is this. I will never smoke a vape pen or e-cigarette ever again. Plain and simple. So if you are using a vape pen or e-cigarette and getting sick. That's probably the reason. ✌ peeps

  • They fail to explain to say how much vape they used at a time. I’ve been using vapes since I was 15 I’m 20 now I haven’t had no problems some tip pod eaters are vaping 24/7 (i smoke with nicotine 3mg) little fact for you guys 3mg nicotine means the whole bottle has 3mg of nicotine I never finish my bottles I always switch them when I’ve nearly made a dent on them. Like i said the media fails to show the actual facts and all they do is show you their facts.

  • Boo! Fear mongering! History has always shown that inhaling chemicals has never had any deleterious health effects! You damn hippies trying to steal my glorified adult bubble wand!

  • It's not fair. Going from being addicted to smoking to being addicted to vaping has been great for my perceivable health. I don't think I'm alone in that. And us vapers – we're not bothering anybody, are we? We're like mobile scented oil diffusers. I'm a herbal minty version. People have even commented on it. "Ooh, that smells really nice."

    You could hang one of those nauseating vanilla trees, from your rear view mirror, or you could put me and my vape in the back seat where I will produce the occasional waft of a subtle blend of herbs and fruit and menthol.

    Please stop persecuting us – unless you want us to go back to a much more unpleasant habit. Let us keep our deceptively perfumie nicotine and you can have free air fresheners!

  • All i hear from vaping people is "oh it's only water vapour we breath out, so stop complaining about us vaping huge clouds vapour in your face".

  • I've never smoked, but I tried vaping without nicotine to help with my anxiety. It always made my lungs feel heavy and oily, so I quit.

  • I'm not originally a smoker. But once, a friend of mine told me that even if I'm not smoking, I'm still a second hand smoker as I often near the people who are smoking. What worst about second hand smoker is that they get the same bad side effect but minus the pleasure. So I figured, might as well become a smoker myself. And trust me, there's a lot of advantage of smoking. When I started smoking, I lose 20 pounds in just 3 months. Then, my social life is improving by leaps and bounds. I started banging hot chicks that I wouldn't even dream of approaching before I start smoking.

  • I normally love your content but NO. No one is saying ecigs are 100% safe but Jesus Christ people, they're a HELL of a lot safer than traditional cigarettes. There's NO risk of 2nd hand or 3rd hand smoking. On top of that no rat poison, carbon monoxide, or the thousands of other dangerous chemicals. Most deaths being reported were related to the black market which was tainted materials. It's helped THOUSANDS of people quit traditional smoking.

  • The main problem with the "vaping is safer than smoking" mentality is that tons of young people started vaping when they wouldn't have started smoking anyway. It's one thing to curb an existing habit or prevent the habit from happening; but if a product introduces a [bad] habit, then harm has been done… regardless of how much better it is than a worse alternative.

    Of course there are plenty of young people who would've started smoking cigarettes if not for vaping, and that's good. But I would wager good money that the percentage of teens/young adults who vape now is way higher than the percentage who smoked tobacco products before vaping became a big thing, which would mean a lot of them picked up vaping even when they probably wouldn't have picked up smoking at all otherwise.

  • There are different e-liquid compositions. You didn't specify which liquid was used (it seems the study doesn't specify it either). There could be a bias in wanting to label vaping dangerous as a whole. Saying "vapor" had a detrimental effect without precising its composition is useless to vapers and looks like misinformation to preserve the cigarette market.

  • Crazy how all of a sudden there's this evidence of e cigs being unhealthy. Right when politician are starting re election campaigns. The moment there a few cases that fit the naritive that e cigs are assumed at children.

  • Curious as to why now all of a sudden vaping is bad. All these negative stories? flooding the news feeds..Could the tobacco lobby be behind this. Am i being cynical, for thinking this?

  • OK just some clarifications:
    1. Fewer than half of the "vaping related illnesses" being reported in the US are lung problems. This means if you sprained your back, and the doctor asked if you vape, that's a vaping related illness.
    2. 84% of the vaping related illnesses that were lung problems were from people who had been vaping THC (the stuff that makes you high in cannabis).
    3. 100% of the vaping related illnesses have been in the United States, where regulation is more lax than in the EU. These problems have not been appearing in the EU despite similar levels of vaping, due to strict legislation about the strength, flavourings and other ingredients allowed in E-cigarette liquid.
    4. The National Health Service, which as a tax payer funded health system, and therefore less prone to sensationalising stories and relies more on science, is still pushing e-cigarettes as a way to quit smoking. There are NHS branded posters talking about E-cigarettes. If the NHS learns that there are more dangers than thought, they will quickly act on it.

    This seems, like many problems, eg gun violence, to be an American problem, not a worldwide problem.

    The EU's strict regulation of these products, as well as THC vaping not being legalised, has not yet created any patterns of casualties that are causing alarm.

    Telling people there is "proof that vaping is terrible" is irresponsible and will just cause more people who cannot quit nicotine, to return to using tobacco, and with tobacco, the science is in… It's bad for you. Like, really bad.

  • Why report on a rodent study. These results may not translate to human at all. It's the same as so called cancer cures that never translate from rodent success to human. This is a flawed data line to uses as a base. There are ample vape users avalible. And no need to give them lethal influenza. As environmental interactions monitor by nurses would reveal pulmonary weakness.

  • The law suits that defeated big tobacco won because it was proved that as early as the 1960s, cigarette ads – camouflaged to look like adult ads – were actually aimed at children with characters such as Camel Joe and the Marlboro Man.  Getting people hooked on nicotine before their brains and senses of consequence were fully developed was the objective.  Flavored tobacco (designed to appeal to kids) was made illegal save for menthol.  Now we have it all over again.  Bubble gum flavored poison to get kids hooked.  If you're a young person reading this, know that the drug dealers are laughing at you.  If you're a tobacco industry executive, it's hard to imagine how you sleep at night.

  • IMO the bone study was a ton more interesting than the vaping study, and I'd love a video title that reflected that rather than the kinda click-baity one…

  • A few people die from vaping and it's banned…. A school room full of 6yo's gets shot up and gun laws aren't touched. That's called looking after tobacco companies. Way to go America.

  • Here…smoke a bunch of unknown compounds !! and you have to be told it is bad for you? FYI… licking on a bathroom toilet is bas too.

  • I don't trust government potentially being bought off by BIG tobacco.
    I don't trust biased vape youtubers or store owners.

    Hank? Yeah I trust Hank.

  • Less terrible than cigarettes. Please for the love of innocents pick e-cigs over cigarettes. Cigarettes have hundreds of verified carcinogens that e-cigs lack.

    Poly Ethylene Glycol is (safe)r than chemical in cigarettes, just stick to regulated pods and you are protecting thousands of innocent bystanders from having lung problems due to being near you. Tens of thousands of innocent bystanders die every year just by living around cigarette smokers; e-cigs remove the AoE damage on activation from nicotine users and that’s literally the most important public health concern…

  • Vaping: Causes 7 deaths
    Entire Media: Vaping is the leading cause of death!!!!!!!!!!!

    I don’t vape but still find the whole ‘vaping is bad’ over exaggerating

  • I tried sharing the portion about vaping with my social media friends, and I've received almost universal backlash. It's almost like people don't want to be informed, and would rather plug their ears and complain about how you're being mean.

  • i love your channel but, i wasn't too happy with this episode. I would have liked to hear which vape juice was tested. not the brand but the ingredients in the vape juice. there are different mixtures of vape juice. saying vaping is linked to these changes in your lungs is too general. to me it sounds like if you would have reported that cheese causes a type of cancer but, you don't specify which cheese was tested. i like your shows but you guys let me down on this one ( fyi, i don't vape)

  • Serious comment for SciShow people:
    If you look at the study, they based the amount of e-liquid on the amount of nicotine that cigarettes have.
    Their conclusion for cigarette nicotine was: 4 cigarettes a day…
    For a mouse.
    Four cigarettes a day, for a mouse…
    Not even light cigarettes. They gave mice 4 Marlboro "Red" 100's. A day.
    That is 1/10th the cigarettes of a heavy smoker.

    While mice are much smaller than 1/10th the mass of a human.
    They are much smaller by every meaningful measurement.
    – Volume of cardiovascular system.
    – Lung capacity.
    etc…

    The factor of error here seems to be greater than 10x.
    But even at 10x, think what they are saying.
    These mice were smoking the equivalent of two cartons of cigarettes a day.

    And they extrapolated that to e-liquid equivalence and expected a healthy mouse?
    That mouse was as good as dead, no matter what equivalent thing you did to him.

  • People have been vaping for 10 years. Why, then, have we only seen these issues appear with relatively new users in the past two months? Answer, they aren't vaping eliquid (water soluble). They are vaping oil, specifically oil with THC suspended in it (those lipids you talk about). Although that also has been done for years now, the newest thing has been for illegal home manufacturers (and possibly a couple of unscrupulous companies) to use Vitamin E Acetate to thicken the liquid. They use it to make the end product appear to be a higher quality without having to use as much THC. This thicker oil and lower THC to oil ratio does two negative things: 1, deposit more oil into the lungs per toke; and 2, encourage the user to take more tokes to get the same "high". This combo is putting dangerous levels of oils into the users lungs.

    I would love it if SciShow did a full episode and used all the validated data that is out there showing what nearly the entire rest of the world knows… Vaping is 95% safer than smoking AND it is a viable and highly effective smoking cessation tool. The goal of vaping isn't nicotine addiction, it is harm reduction… and a reduction of harm by 95% is pretty darn good.

  • I read a story online about a guy who decided to quit vaping by going back to smoking! and apparently a lot of young people are starting to do the same thing. what I find odd is that a lot of the stories I've read about vaping killing people. is that they seem to gleam over the fact that a lot of the people who ended up in the hospital were mixing marijuana in their vaping devices. if that marijuana was treated with pesticides or other chemicals. wouldn't that might be whats making them sick? i've been vaping since 2011. and in all the time, I've gone to the hospital for kidney stones (which runs in my family) a cut on my foot. and because I caught the flu. which I hardly ever get. because I don't get sick often. coincidentally… I don't vape marijuana. and the ingredients in my eliquid is 30% which I have read even hospitals use. and 70% vg vegetable glycerin. there are so many things now at days that can kill you, like bacon and other processed foods. but you don't see the FDA trying to ban that do you. or outlawing cigarettes. and why not you might be thinking? because those other hire lobbyist. I bet if the vaping companies started giving government officials kick backs mafia style. they would reverse course on banning ecigs in a heart beat

  • Who would have suspected inhaling burning chemicals into your lungs was not good for you..?? People justify vaping by saying it's "not as bad as smoking"…. now that it's been proven vaping is also terrible for your lungs people are starting to virtue-signal ….. Give me a break!……. smoking takes what, 10-20 years to damage your lungs.?…. and now it looks like vaping is doing it in a year or two?

  • Vaping was never ment to be 100% safe . It was ment as a method of harm reduction in place of cigarette and it does that very successfully for the vast majority of people who try it.

  • How can you possibly put "sci" in your show name with garbage like this? Propylene glycol is pumped into the air at some hospitals because it's great at fighting airborn bacteria. It shouldn't come as any surprise then that many vapers find themselves getting far less chest infections during the cold and flu season. Indeed the simple fact that they are no longer smoking tobacco is a big boost for vapers when it comes lung health, but the Propylene Glycol cannot be discounted here.
    And here is some actual science to back that up. https://pneumonia.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41479-016-0001-2

    Thats how you do science 😉

  • Yeah…… When I started vaping my immune system plummeted and I got pneumonia like 3 times now. I've never had pneumonia in my life before vaping

  • This is textbook example of hypnotic anchoring. There is literally no reason to put these topics together. You just cued up thoughts about fear, and then put a vaping topic after. It's obscene. Besides, the comparative safety of actual water vapor and cigarette smoke (both compared with no or comparable nicotine levels) is not in question and has not been in question for decades. Cigarette smoke is much worse for you. Vaporized water is the medical standard for inhalated drug delivery in the feild of anesthesiology. However, medical grade vaporizers are adjusted in water concentration based on the atmospheric conditions. This would be a step in the right direction to prevent fluid buildup in the lungs. There are safety steps that can be taken, but vaping is not dangerous, especiallywhen done in moderation. You are spreading misleading sentiment online.

  • studies from a few years ago concluded that aerosolized propylene glycol can prevent the spread of infectious diseases, however it also found that while it prevent the spread it could exacerbate a pre-existing lung born illness and potentially lead to pneumonia. combined with this recent study my personal conclusion(which is likely wrong but hey) is that vaping can potentially prevent the spread of disease however it weakens your immune response so it's a double edged sword. the most important take away however is don't vape while you're sick!

  • A handful* of deaths loosely attributed to vaping. Hell, let's say they were all caused by vaping. It's still MANY orders of magnitude less than smoking. Pollution is a major factor here, which complicates calculating accurate numbers. Virtually everything is dangerous if consumed in excess, even water.

    Meanwhile, 500 people in The States die PER HOUR of smoking-related lung cancer. Yet the headlines are full of vaping horror stories, scaring people from switching to vaping products will cause more deaths, just to get more clicks (could the title get anymore clickbaity?). These 'journalists' literally have blood on their hands👏👏. I expected better from SciShow!🤬

    *People buying dodgy THC e-liquid, had it been legal it would be regulated and people wouldn't use solvents meant to be burnt. Plus there are the fake Juul cartridges, but fake cigarettes is nothing new.

    PS: My father died of lung cancer, it isn't a nice way to go. He didn't even hit 60.

    /Unsubscribed.

  • But its not an open question, vaping is less harmful than smoking by far. Is it safe, no? but 480,000 deaths a year is enough to look to vaping as a better alternative.

  • Interesting, I keep thinking that it might be the oil in the vape juice but I'm not sure if it the oil because it's just my baseless assumption so this here is really just my hypothesis about what could be triggering the macrophage to start producing fats and lipids like that.🤔

  • I'm in Canada. We haven't had any vape deaths here, nor outbreaks of vape related illness. It also hasn't happened in the UK. Me thinks there is a big difference in how we sell, regulate and view vaping.

  • I smoked for 15 years. Then I started camping and within 3 months I managed to quit nicotine and vaping entirely. People never consider how good vaping is as a smoking cessation device.

  • Vegetable glycerin/Oil and Propylene glycol/ Propane that's the problem and let's throw some artificial ingredients and sweeteners in the mix to top that off shall we??

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