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Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death


Black holes are one of the strangest things in existence. They don’t seem to make any sense at all. Where do they come from… …and what happens if you fall into one? Stars are incredibly massive collections of mostly hydrogen atoms that collapsed from enormous gas cloud under their own gravity. In their core, nuclear fusion crushes hydrogen atoms into helium releasing a tremendous amount of energy This energy, in the form of radiation, pushes against gravity, maintaining a delicate balance between the two forces. As long as there is fusion in the core, a star remains stable enough. But for stars with way more mass then our own sun the heat and pressure at the core allow them to fuse heavier elements until they reach iron. Unlike all the elements that went before, the fusion process that creates iron doesn’t generate any energy. Iron builds up at the center of the star until it reaches a critical amount and the balance between radiation and gravity is suddenly broken. The core collapses. Within a fraction of a second, the star implodes. Moving at about the quarter of the speed of light, feeding even more mass into the core. It’s at this very moment that all the heavier elements in the universe are created, as the star dies, in a super nova explosion. This produces either a neutron star, or if the star is massive enough, the entire mass of the core collapses into a black hole. If you looked at a black hole, what you’d really be seeing is the event horizon. Anything that crosses the event horizon needs to be travelling faster than the speed of light to escape. In other words, its impossible. So we just see a black sphere reflecting nothing. But if the event horizon is the black part, what is the “hole” part of the black hole? The singularity. We’re not sure what it is exactly. A singularity may be indefinitely dense, meaning all its mass is concentrated into a single point in space, with no surface or volume, or something completely different. Right now, we just don’t know. its like a “dividing by zero”error. By the way, black holes do not suck things up like a vacuum cleaner, If we were to swap the sun for an equally massive black hole, nothing much would change for earth, except that we would freeze to death, of course. what would happen to you if you fell into a black hole? The experience of time is different around black holes, from the outside, you seem to slow down as you approach the event horizon, so time passes slower for you. at some point, you would appear to freeze in time, slowly turn red, and disapear. While from your perspective, you can watch the rest of the universe in fast forward, kind of like seeing into the future. Right now, we don’t know what happens next, but we think it could be one of two things: One, you die a quick death. A black hole curves space so much, that once you cross the event horizon, there is only one possible direction. you can take this – literally – inside the event horizon, you can only go in one direction. Its like being in a really tight alley that closes behind you after each step. The mass of a black hole is so concentrated, at some point even tiny distances of a few centimeters, would means that gravity acts with millions of times more force on different parts of your body. Your cells get torn apart, as your body stretches more and more, until you are a hot stream of plasma, one atom wide. Two, you die a very quick death. Very soon after you cross the event horizon, you would hit a firewall and be terminated in an instant. Neither of these options are particularly pleasant. How soon you would die depends on the mass of the black hole. A smaller black hole would kill you before you even enter its event horizon, while you probably could travel inside a super size massive black hole for quite a while. As a rule of thumb, the further away from the singularity you are, the longer you live. Black holes come in different sizes. There are stellar mass black holes, with a few times the mass of sun, and the diameter of an asteroid. And then there are the super massive black holes, which are found at the heart of every galaxy, and have been feeding for billions of years. Currently, the largest super massive black hole known, is S5 0014+81. 40 billion times the mass of our sun. It is 236.7 billion kilometers in diameter, which is 47 times the distance from the sun to Pluto. As powerful as black holes are, they will eventually evaporate through a process called Hawking radiation. To understand how this works, we have to look at empty space. Empty space is not really empty, but filled with virtual particles popping into existence and annihilating each other again. When this happens right on the edge of a black hole, one of the virtual particles will be drawn into the black hole, and the other will escape and become a real particle. So the black hole is losing energy. This happens incredibly slowly at first, and gets faster as the black hole becomes smaller. When it arrives at the mass of a large asteroid, its radiating at room temperature. When it has the mass of a mountain, it radiates with about the heat of our sun. and in the last second of its life, the black hole radiates away with the energy of billions of nuclear bombs in a huge explosion. But this process is incredibly slow, The biggest black holes we know, might take up a googol year to evaporate. This is so long that when the last black hole radiates away, nobody will be around to witness it. The universe will have become uninhabitable, long before then. This is not the end of our story, there are loads more interesting ideas about black holes, we’ll explore them in part 2.

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Comments
  • Dear Whoever reads this,

    I think I just came to a mental breakthrough on the topic of black holes. So we know gravity bends space, and we know that every black hole takes in energy and matter but doesn't let any out minus hawking radiation.

    Where does all of this go?

    White holes seems to be the logical answer, and I think it is. but so far mainstream science hasn't found evidence for their existence. And I think that's because white holes are produced in the exact opposite way: Space expanding to such lengths that instead of forcing all of the information into a singularity, there is essentially a rip in space that would be torn at the smallest possible scale.

    As far as I'm concerned, this sort of tearing can only exist as a result of our current universal expansion/acceleration, and the Universe accelerating outward reminds me how gravity accelerates things towards it's center

    okay so get ready to have your mind blown: Let's say you get sucked into a black hole. Your atoms and every other particle is taken into the singularity… and I believe it is stored. Once it's stored the only way to release it is to, like I said, have the opposite of a singularity or an expansion driven tear into spacetime, expel all of info in every direction.

    The only point where spacetime could be stretched enough to rip it would be in 10^100^100 years or something.. but by then the entire existance would uniformly rip in all places. The ensuing matter explosion would essentially be a big bang in every possible place at once.

    So that's how the Universe started. Our existence is a result of a White Bang in a previously existing universe that expanded itself to heat death. Why is it expanding?

    Gravity and Antigravity (The repelling, accelerating force) are like hills and valleys in a space time world. Each valley is a gravity field. Each hill is an Antigravity field. Both are relative, that is to say you can't have 2 hills without a valley, or 2 valleys without 3 hills. All of that empty space is expanding, for the same reason that all of the occupied space is contracting. They are simply products of the same phenomena. The more empty the space, the greater the expansionary force is. This is why the spaces between stars aren't overcome with Antigravity, while on a galactic scale, gravity usually is overcome by Antigravity.

    Now for the rest of the theory to work there is an assumption to be made that the information held in limbo after being taken by a black hole and before being expelled by a White hole, is a different dimension on a scale smaller than plank scale. This is "where" the 3rd dimension aka our dimension resides, but it's literally every where. When a White Bang happens, all the white holes expand. I'm not sure if they touch but if they do, the dimension they come from envelops our heat death 3rd dimension, making the entire universe that dimension.

    At this point it goes one of two ways: a loop or a ladder. That dimension is either a parallel 3rd dimension… and this loops on forever, making the Universe infinite and with no causality, because while it explains what will happen and what has happened, it doesn't explain how the cycle began. Not very satisfying

    Or, we are on a ladder, having come from a different dimension lower than ours through the same physics, only to be overtaken by the next dimension with the same physics.. and so on, either forever evolving higher, or coming to a final destination in death, rebirth, and evolution.

    But yeah I needed to write that down before I forget. Goodbye

  • Does somebody know why a fusion into iron doesn't emit any energy ? Mass is changing even greater than a fusion into helium right ?

  • Unsure as to wether can fall into a black hole as we r perceiving the matter itself, light and dark create as one our 3d form, infinity is part of the product of perception that we r already apart of

  • a blackhole is gonna hit earth in 4.5 billion years. Its 100 million times massive than our sun. It is located in the galaxy called andromeda. Dont hate, there is scientific proof.

  • Please, don't even mention Hawking radiation. It is SOOO negligible, that for all practical purposes it doesn't really exist.

  • السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
    I am incredibly excited about your science vedioes🤯🤓, but we need it in Arabic. (Knowledge is a power that elevates the status of people with a science based on it) those who prove worthy… 🗝️

  • Aren't black holes really not holes but space/time strechd out and pulled in 1 spacial 1 time.Maybe they're the way to the flat landers

  • Most black holes grow and split they never merge. Something like even if you put two sun nearby they grow and split apart they cannot be put together. It is a kind of ever expanding cosmos. Even galaxies expand. If they are in collision course they just pass through. They never merge. Event horizon is the only place where things get created. Whether matter or dark matter. Or light or dark energy. There are two different kinds of event horizon. DM and WM. Both are plane perpendicular to each.

  • I love you guys and the work you do. but I don't agree on certain parts of this vid. for one thing, nobody has any idea just how old any of the black holes we've discovered actually are. there could be some up there old enough to evaporate before life dies out in the universe. also i find it hard to believe that the only force that could weaken the black holes would be these virtual particles interactions with them. until we can somehow find a way to study what goes on in a singularity we can't truly say what will happen in the future. all that mass that gets sucked in.. even light which has no mass but still has energy.. all that being compressed so small as to not exist anymore.. contents under pressure so to speak.. and i feel it must be possible for a black hole to rupture if the pressure building inside it ever exceeds the strength of it's own gravity. i mean, we know energy itself can't be created or destroyed, it only changes forms. so all that energy that's trapped in there is still there, forever building greater and greater until it doesn't anymore. maybe this will happen at the same time that the black hole will evaporate anyway and none of it matters.. or maybe it will happen sooner. or maybe it won't happen at all. we simply don't know. but i still feel like it matters to ponder such things.

  • But the density of a singularity of a black hole cannot be infinite as it contains the density of whatever object created said black hole? It's size is however infinitely small, that can be infinite.

    I get that you want to show that a singularity is an amazing object with a lot of properties we should learn about in science but you misinform people by saying it like that.

  • Where do these people get this nonsense from, actually it is almost the direct opposite, a sun is the after math of a black hole, did anyone ever think about that.

  • If the Universe is fine tuned for anything, its fine tuned for the creation of black holes. The universe is Not fine tuned for the creation of people as Jesus' stupid followers want you to believe (along with most other stupid religions).

  • The supernova explosion in this video was like an illusion because when you look at it then look at ur hand and it looks odd

  • Am I dumb? I just don't understand why one of the virtual particles escaping takes energy from the black hole. Someone please help me

  • If the universe goes dark would the Big Bang just happen again is the universe a long looping cycle of big bangs ?

  • Random question. So a black hole becomes a black hole when the radius and mass reach a critical turning point, when the escape velocity near it becomes or surpasses the speed of light. Therefore anything entering it accelerates by a speed determined by the escape velocity. So in theory, wouldn't something entering a black hole eventually be able to surpass the speed of light? Its just strange to me that in nature nothing can travel faster than the speed of light, but there are objects that have enough density and mass to require a speed greater than that of light to escape.

  • Black holes are a total nonsense. Einstein's suspect theoretical bullshit was brilliantly proved the rubbish that it is by the true genius Nikola Tesla. It's all electro magnetic rotation

  • I would say if a person looked into Outer
    Space there would be very small Black
    Holes,Small Black Holes,Medium Black
    Holes,Large Black Holes and very Large
    Black Holes.They would not be very easy
    to see,but they are there.I think I keep to
    the Black Holes on Earth.

  • You need a physical object to create gravity. To believe that the singularity is just empty mass is stupidity. The singularity is a SOLID object spinning. Mass goes in and gets crushed along with it. This is how it grows!

  • I choose never I want the black hole to be extinct just so life can let us know that the black hole doesn't exist anymore star a new life the sun can live forever so it won't turn into a red giant ever same with the earth and moon stay cold forever to be immortal with a invincibility I wish life can go on forever and ever without the black hole it would be better it is longer existing forever that is my wish life will last forever don't get me wrong you guys should agree with me it's to change nature some of you guys don't like it neither like or not because you guys think this is a joke so do not disagree with me because……I'LL KILL YOU Nah! Just kidding but for real vote for my agreement okay? Piece out live
    Forever Earth be Immortal with a forcefield.

  • Blackhole= planet besi yang mempunyai gravitasi besar dengan kompresi yang besar 🤔 jadi blackhole bukan lah lubang tapi sebuah planet 😕

  • If it takes so long for a supermassive black hole to die, doesn't that give strength to the theory that the entire universe will collapse into one

  • Our part of the universe is still very young. My theory is a black hole could eventually die like a sun. Due to lack of food or planetery magnetic changes. Even stars dying every thing ends Realeasing every it ate that was trapped in time also very compressed.

  • What if the universe restarts itself when black holes reach such a mass to large they explode and create a super nova expelling all there mass they once had after they engulfed most the universe. And from there that’s what’s consider the Big Bang and the universe restarts from there

  • In the animation (anime) Stellvia, an interesting concept is presented about gravitational shields created precisely to protect the earth from impacts such as these. Is this merely possible or just ramblings of a creative mind?

  • if they black whole is giving off something then surely we could find a way to use it to power things. holding on to life around a black hole.

  • If the virtual particles keep popping up in empty space, and one particle escapes and one falls into the black hole, this would mean black hole is gaining mass, since those popping up particles just popped up as the video said, they werent part of black hole that escaped. :/

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